NCLEX: Nursing Pharmacology

NCLEX: Nursing Pharmacology

NCLEX: Nursing Pharmacology

Nurse Jamie is administering the initial total parenteral nutrition solution to a client. Which of the following assessments requires the nurse’s immediate attention?

A. Temperature of 37.5 degrees Celsius.
B. Urine output of 300 cc in 4 hours.
C. Poor skin turgor.
D. Blood glucose of 350 mg/dl.

Correct Answer: D. Blood glucose of 350 mg/dl.

Total parenteral nutrition formulas contain dextrose in concentrations of 10% or greater to supply 20% to 50% of the total calories. Blood glucose levels should be checked every 4 to 6 hours. A sliding scale dose of insulin may be ordered to maintain the blood glucose level below 200mg/dl.

Option A:

Catheter-related bloodstream infection or CR-BSI, which starts at the hub connection, is the spread of bacteria through the bloodstream. There’s an increased risk of CR-BSI with TPN, due to the high dextrose concentration of TPN. Symptoms include tachycardia, hypotension, elevated or decreased temperature, increased breathing, decreased urine output, and disorientation. Strict adherence to aseptic technique with insertion, care, and maintenance; avoid hyperglycemia to prevent infection complications; closely monitor vital signs and temperature. IV antibiotic therapy is required. Monitor white blood cell count and patient for the malaise. Replace IV tubing frequently as per agency policy (usually every 24 hours).

Option B:

Monitor and record every eight hours or as per agency policy. Monitor for signs and symptoms of fluid overload (excessive weight gain) by completing a cardiovascular and respiratory assessment. Assess intakes such as IV (intravenous fluids), PO (oral intake), NG (nasogastric tube feeds). Assess outputs: NG (removed gastric content through the nasogastric tube), fistula drainage, BM (liquid bowel movements), colostomy/ileostomy drainage, closed suction drainage devices (Penrose or Jackson-Pratt drainage), and chest tube drainage.

Option C:

Related to a sudden increase in glucose after a recent malnourished state. After starvation, glucose intake suppresses gluconeogenesis by leading to the release of insulin and the suppression of glycogen. Excessive glucose may lead to hyperglycemia, with osmotic diuresis, dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and ketoacidosis. Excess glucose also leads to lipogenesis (again caused by insulin stimulation). This may cause fatty liver, increased CO2 production, hypercapnia, and respiratory failure.

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