Pathways To Safer Opioid Use

Pathways To Safer Opioid Use

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a substance use disorder relating to the use of an opioid. Any such disorder causes significant impairment or distress.[3] Signs of the disorder include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance to opioids, difficulty fulfilling obligations, trouble reducing use, and withdrawal symptoms with discontinuation.[4][5] Opioid withdrawal symptoms may include nausea, muscle aches, diarrhea, trouble sleeping, agitation, and a low mood.[5] Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder.[13] Complications may include opioid overdose, suicide, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, and problems at school, work, or home.[4][5]

Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.[5][6] In the United States, a majority of heroin users begin by using prescription opioids, that may also be bought illegally.[14][15] Risk factors for misuse include a history of substance use, substance use among family and friends, mental illness, low socioeconomic status, and race.[16][17] Diagnosis may be based on criteria by the American Psychiatric Association in the DSM-5.[4] If more than two of eleven criteria are present during a year, the diagnosis is said to be present.[4] If a person is appropriately taking opioids for a medical condition, issues of tolerance and withdrawal do not apply.[4]

Individuals with an opioid use disorder are often treated with opioid replacement therapy using methadone or buprenorphine.[7] Being on such treatment reduces the risk of death.[7] Additionally, individuals may benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy, other forms of support from mental health professionals such as individual or group therapy, twelve-step programs, and other peer support programs.[8] The medication naltrexone may also be useful to prevent relapse.[10] Naloxone is useful for treating an opioid overdose and giving those at risk naloxone to take home is beneficial.[9]

In 2013, opioid use disorders affected about 0.4% of people.[4] As of 2016, about 27 million people are affected.[11] Long term opioid use occurs in about 4% of people following their use for trauma or surgery related pain.[18] Onset is often in young adulthood.[4] Males are affected more often than females.[4] It resulted in 122,000 deaths worldwide in 2015,[12] up from 18,000 deaths in 1990.[19] In the United States during 2016, there were more than 42,000 deaths due to opioid overdose, of which more than 15,000 were the result of heroin use.[20]

Link for pathways to safer opioid use simulation

Character: James Parker

(Previous paper attached)

These are the decisions used in the previous Simulation, please pick different answer from the ones below.

1. Tell him is an 8 explain why

2. Ask about alternative treatment options

3. Risk having to stay longer

4.Yes ask why it is necessary

5.Do Both

6.Go see a pyschologist

  • You will proceed through the simulation as James Parker again, but make different decisions to see the different effects they cause.
  • You will then write a 3 page paper describing the process you went through and the results in comparison to last week that you got based on the different decisions you made as James. State how James became addicted and what both the patient and the caregivers could have done to prevent this.
  • Provide and integrate at least two scholarly resources within your paper that support prevention of opioid addiction.
  •  This paper must be written in APA format, typed in Times New Roman with 12-point font, double-spaced with 1-inch margins.


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